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Following the introduction, Part One documents the effects of on-stream dams on fisheries, aquatic habitat and fishing-dependent communities. In Part Two, the Article examines how principles from international fisheries law (which has traditionally focused more on ocean fisheries than freshwater fisheries) apply in the transboundary river context. Part Three then identifies the rights of upstream/downstream nations under international water law pertaining to the impoundment and release of water from on-stream dams on waterways where fisheries are present. Next, in Part Four, the Article considers how international environmental impact assessment obligations relate to the construction and operation of on-stream dams. Finally, Part Five explores how policy efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with energy production are affecting environmental perceptions of on-stream hydro-electric dams.