Document Type

Cal State Document

Publication Date



On November 4, California voters will decide whether to retain Chief Justice Rose Bird and Associate Justices Joseph Grodin and Cruz Reynoso on the Supreme Court of California.1 This election is extraordinarily important because, for the first time in the history of California judicial retention elections, several Justices are being vigorously opposed in a multi-million dollar partisan campaign. The campaign against the Justices has been conducted by conservative organizations through direct mail and advertisements in newspapers, radio and television. Although we are used to this in ordinary politics, it is a I cause for great concern in a judicial election. The outcome of the election will affect the course of the law in California for many years to come. Far more important, the process I by which the election is decided will crucially affect the independence of the judiciary in California and perhaps in other states as well.


The authors are members of the faculty of Stanford Law School.

The date of is taken from the cataloging record.