Golden Gate University Law Review


Reid Miller


This Note will discuss how the Ninth Circuit incorrectly adopted the average-audience test because the test has become overbroad in its application, is ill-equipped to deal with the issues of complex modern music, and has drifted from the fundamental purpose of copyright law. The Ninth Circuit should have adopted the intended- audience test, which looks to the reaction of those with the expertise required to understand the language of the work and more truly reflects the fundamental purpose of copyright law: the protection of the creator's market.