Parental kidnapping has been called "one of the most subtle and brutal forms of child abuse." In response to the seriousness of the problem of childsnatching and its increasing incidence in this country, steps have been taken on both state and federal levels. The UCCJA was approved by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and by the American Bar Association in 1968. By 1984 it had been enacted in all states and the Virgin Islands. Virtually all states have also enacted criminal parental kidnapping statutes. In 1980, Congress passed the Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act (PKPA), which not only strengthened the provisions of state laws but also contained additional safeguards against childsnatching.
Nancy S. Erickson,
The Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act: How Can Non-Marital Children Be Protected?, 18 Golden Gate U. L. Rev.